The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the load. KW/Kva.
KT Utility can monitor and assist with the control of KVA spikes to eliminate the costs of having a poor power factor. Our engineers will provide case studies on online readings and advise on how to reduce or eliminate excess costs for poor power factor. We provide a full Power Quality Analysis Service.
Power Fator (PF) is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 (sometimes expressed as a percentage, e.g. 0.5 pf = 50% pf). Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power will be greater than the real power.
In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a higher power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system and requires larger wires and other equipment. Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy, electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost to industrial or commercial customers where there is a poor power factor.
Linear loads with low power factor (such as induction motors) can be corrected with a passive network of capacitors. Non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, distort the current drawn from the system. In such cases, active or passive power factor correction may be used to counteract the distortion and raise the power factor. The devices for correction of the power factor may be at a central substation, spread out over a distribution system, or built into power-consuming equipment.
Power factor correction of linear loads
A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses and improve voltage regulation at the load. It is often desirable to adjust the power factor of a system to near 1.0. When reactive elements supply or absorb reactive power near the load, the apparent power is reduced. Power factor correction may be applied by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission network. Correction equipment may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the costs charged to them by their electricity supplier.
Power factor correction systems bring the power factor of an AC power circuit closer to 1, (100% efficiency) by means of supplying reactive power by adding capacitors into the circuit which act to cancel the inductive or capacitive effects of the load, respectively. For example, the inductive effect of motor loads may be offset by locally connected capacitors. If a load had a capacitive value, inductors (also known as reactors in this context) are connected to correct the power factor. In the electricity industry, inductors are said to consume reactive power and capacitors are said to supply it, even though the reactive power is just moving back and forth on each AC cycle.
The reactive elements can create voltage fluctuations and harmonic noise when switched on or off. They will supply or sync reactive power regardless of whether there is a corresponding load operating nearby, increasing the system's no-load losses. In the worst case, reactive elements can interact with the system and with each other to create resonant conditions, resulting in system instability and severe overvoltage fluctuations. As such, reactive elements cannot simply be applied without engineering analysis.
An automatic power factor correction unit consists of numerous capacitors that are switched by means of contactors. These contactors are controlled by a PF Step Controller that measures power factor in an electrical network. Depending on the load and power factor of the network, the power factor controller will switch the necessary banks of capacitors in steps to make sure the power factor stays above a selected value.
Instead of using a set of switched capacitors, an unloaded synchronous motor can supply reactive power. The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation. This is referred to as a synchronous condenser. It is started and connected to the electrical network. It operates at a leading power factor and puts vats onto the network as required to support a system's voltage or to maintain the system power factor at a specified level.
The condenser's installation and operation are identical to large electric motors. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted; it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor. Unlike capacitors, the amount of reactive power supplied is proportional to voltage, not the square of voltage; this improves voltage stability on large networks. Synchronous condensers are often used in connection with transmission projects or in large industrial plants such as steel mills.
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